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Download eBook BOOK EXCERPT: Alluvial and fluvial fans are the most widespread depositional landform bordering the margins of highland regions and actively subsiding continental basins, across a broad spectrum of tectonic and climatic settings. They are significant to the local morphodynamics of mountain regions and also to the evolution of sediment-routing systems, affecting the propagation and preservation of stratigraphic signals of environmental change over vast areas. The volume presents case studies discussing the geology and geomorphology of alluvial and fluvial fans from both active systems and ancient ones preserved in the stratigraphic record. It brings together case studies from a range of continents, climatic and tectonic settings, some introducing innovative monitoring and analysis techniques, and it provides an overview of current debates in the field. This volume will be of particular interest to geologists, geomorphologists, sedimentologists and the general reader with an interest in Earth science. They trap sediment delivered from mountain source areas, and exert an important control on the delivery of sediment to downstream environments, to axial drainages and to sedimentary basins. They preserve a sensitive record of environmental change within the mountain source areas. Alluvial fan geomorphology and sedimentology reflect not only drainage basin size and geology, but change in response to tectonic, climatic and base-level controls. One of the challenges facing alluvial fan research is to resolve how these gross controls are reflected in alluvial fan dynamics and to apply the results of studies of modern fan processes and Quaternary fans to the understanding of sedimentary sequences in the rock record. This volume includes papers based on up-to-date research, and focuses on three themes: alluvial fan processes, dynamics of Quaternary alluvial fans and fan sedimentary sequences.

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We analysed spatial development of traditional and modern settlements on active alluvial fans in the Upper Sava Valley NW Slovenia , by using old cadastral data from the beginning of the 19th century, time series of aerial photographs from the middle of the 20th century and recent building cadastre. The valley is surrounded by the mountainous Julian Alps in the south and the Karavanke Mountains in the north where there is a lack of space for settlements due to steep slopes that are increasing the danger of slope processes, torrential processes and floods.

By using a very high-resolution 1m LiDAR digital elevation model, we defined the morphometry of alluvial fans and the characteristics of the drainage system of contributing tributaries. We classified the areas according to the threat posed by the modelled torrents and debris flows.

dating are few, but have increased exponentially in number since then. for understanding fan processes, form, and evolution, and (c) a constant slope like a cone segment, or have half of a Sheetfloods are instigated by torrential.

Climate impacts on landslides evolution View all 6 Articles. To understand the behavior of torrential processes in the alpine environment, the conditions mainly responsible for the occurrence of these phenomena have to be identified and distinguished as predisposing and triggering factors. In this regard, this study is aimed to understanding which factors lead to the occurrence of a given torrential processes in alpine catchments in the Western Alps, where information on past events are exhaustive and characterized by a long historical series.

More than documented torrential events occurred from to within 78 catchments. Datasets concerning climate, geology and morphology, land use and the presence of historical landslide activity have been elaborated as input for multivariate statistical analysis to characterize the behavior of the catchments. The results pinpoint the factors that mainly drive the type of torrential dominant process occurring in a given catchment, its occurrence probability, and its frequency.

This study has demonstrated that catchments characterized by a significant percentage of outcropping rocks show a greater occurrence of torrential processes, especially hyperconcentrated flows and debris flows; on the contrary highly vegetated catchments are typically subject to water flows. This result can be a useful tool for the evaluation of hazards related to this specific phenomenon, making it possible to predict the most likely torrential processes that can be generated in a specific catchment, given the characteristics of outcropping rock and vegetation cover.

Torrential processes affecting alpine catchments are one of the most common phenomena causing economic losses and casualties in the alpine region Govi and Sorzana, ; Tropeano and Turconi, ; Tropeano et al. Intense rainfall is the most common triggering factor of torrential processes in the alpine environment, especially below m asl because, at higher altitudes, the occurrence of torrential processes is driven by factors linked to the periglacial environment i.

Previous studies conducted in the Alps have shown that the occurrence of torrential processes with mass transport is closely related to some predisposing factors, such as the lithological setting of the catchments and the fracturation degree of the outcropping rocks Lin et al. While the morphometric and lithological influence on the occurrence of torrential processes are widely investigated in literature, the role of the vegetation cover has been mainly treated in connection with the triggering of landslides Campbell, ; Styczen and Morgan, ; Schmidt et al.

The role that it plays in preventing torrential phenomena is not present in such detail in literature; in fact, the majority of articles deals with the effects of wood in the runout of torrential processes Tinker and Knight, ; Lancaster et al. This study intends to correlate in a statistical way all the mentioned factors, including land use, to understand how they interact with each other and which of these most influences the triggering of torrential phenomena characterized by mass transport.

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Water-related processes such as floods, debris floods, flash floods, and debris flows represent major geomorphic hazards in mountain areas of the world. Recent decades have seen human pressures on these regions increase, aggravating conflicts between natural hazards and infrastructure. Detailed knowledge on frequency and magnitude of past flood or debris-flow events on alluvial fans and cones remains scarce, although it is widely accepted that such knowledge is of crucial importance for the assessment of hazards, mitigation of risks, and land-use planning.

Archival records on the occurrence of past events are often fragmentary or even completely missing.

Harvey, AM () Processes of sediment supply to alluvial fans and debris cones. In: Schneuwly-Bollschweiler, et al. (eds) Dating Torrential.

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Early to Late Pleistocene history of debris-flow fan evolution in western Death M., and Rudolf-Miklau, F. (Eds.), Dating torrential processes on fans and cones.

This book provides a detailed overview on methods used for the dating of past torrential activity on fans and cones and fosters the discussion on the impact of past and potential future climate change on torrential processes. The book has a clear focus on the practical applications of these methods, complemented by case studies. The limits of each dating method in case of excessive natural and human interventions on fans and cones are shown.

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Debris-flow runout and deposition on the fan

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Dating Torrential Processes on Fans and Cones, , 12, Processi di mud-debris flow in Val Cenischia (Alpi Graie)–Osservazioni nel bacino.

Find here a list of topics for a master thesis. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms doi. Science of the Total Environment , doi: Geophysical Research Letters doi: Water Resources Research 54 doi: Earth Syst. Kaitna, R.

Citations:chronic

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Debris-flow runout and deposition on the fan. D Rickenmann, C Scheidl. Dating torrential processes on fans and cones, , 14, Estimation of.

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Since the frequency and magnitude of these scenarios have a large impact on the calculated risk, dating of past events are of pivotal interest for risk analyses. The superposition of breccias on conglomerates implies that tributary debris-flow fans prograded from the valley margin towards the centre. Further downstream, the classical approach of palaeoflood hydrology Kochel and Baker utilizes geomorphic indicators such as overbank sediments, silt lines and erosion features of floods along a river e.

Subsequent erosion and dissection of the valley fill commenced later during the same humid interval and continued throughout the following drier climate. To obtain the best possible data with highest accuracy for a better estimate of hazards and risk on a fan or cone, a multi-method approach often represents the best solution.

Abstract Two distinct types of alluvial fans occur in the Bow River Valley, Alberta, Canada: fluvially dominated and debris flow dominated. Large, gently sloping.

Iribarren Anacona, P. Dynamics of an outburst flood originating from a small and high-altitude glacier in the Arid Andes of Chile. Natural Hazards, pp Cogez, A. Earth Surface Dynamics , in press. Webber, S. How fast can low-angle normal faults slip? Insights from cosmogenic exposure dating of the active Mai’iu fault, Papua New Guinea.

Geology, in press. Little, T. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, in press.

What is an alluvial fan?


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